Nutritional Choices: Formulating Complete and Balanced Homemade Diets

As pet owners, we are deeply invested in the well-being of our companions. One crucial aspect of their health is the diet they consume. Providing a complete and balanced diet is not just about filling their bowls; it’s about meeting their nutritional needs to ensure a vibrant and happy life.

In the world of responsible pet ownership, a growing number of enthusiasts are embracing the art of crafting home-cooked pet diets. Fueled by a cocktail of confusion surrounding pet food labels, a general sense of distrust, and an unwavering devotion to their furry companions, these pet owners are transforming kitchens into laboratories of love. This culinary commitment is particularly pronounced when the health of beloved pets hangs in the balance, elevating the act of home-cooking into a powerful expression of care and dedication.

The motivations underlying this choice are multifaceted and diverse, reflecting a spectrum of concerns, preferences, and a genuine desire for a more hands-on approach to pet care. This growing segment of pet owners seeks a personalized touch in meeting their pets’ nutritional needs, navigating a path that aligns with their values and aspirations for their animals’ well-being. As this trend continues to evolve, it underscores the dynamic relationship between pet owners and their beloved animals, with nutrition serving as a pivotal aspect of the bond that unites them.

Pets are often considered to be family members. With the humanization of pets, some pet owners opt for homemade foods with genuine intentions, though navigating pet nutrition can be a challenging endeavor. Unfortunately, the complexity and scientific nuances of providing a well-balanced diet are often overlooked, leading to instances where homemade diets, despite good intentions, can inadvertently do more harm than good to the health and well-being of our beloved animal companions.

In general, the consensus among veterinary professionals is clear: feeding a complete and balanced commercial diet from a reputable pet food manufacturer is often considered the gold standard for ensuring optimal pet health. These nutrition experts unanimously agree that the majority of healthy pets can thrive on well-formulated commercial diets, designed to meet their essential nutrient requirements.

Yet, the landscape of pet health is diverse, and not all animals fit the one-size-fits-all approach of commercial diets. Some pets face complex health conditions or diseases that demand a more tailored nutritional approach—one that may not be adequately addressed by off-the-shelf or prescription diets. In cases where specific medical necessities dictate dietary considerations, the selection of a homemade diet becomes a prudent choice. Certain combinations of diseases can make commercial diet selection tricky or even impossible. In these instances, a homemade diet is effective management of the complex interplay of diseases than a commercially available option.

Whether you’re exploring home-prepared diets for specific health conditions or seeking a deeper understanding of your pet’s nutritional needs, delving into the world of formulating complete and balanced diets involves understanding the principles that underpin this critical aspect of pet care that will empower you with knowledge for making informed choices about your pet’s diet and well-being.

Amidst this surge of pet owners embracing the practice of crafting homemade meals, a notable cautionary note must be sounded:

The inclination to seek recipes for pet diets, readily available online or shared enthusiastically among pet owners, introduces a significant element of risk. Formulating a nutritionally complete and balanced diet for animals requires a level of expertise that extends beyond the realm of popular recipes or well-intentioned advice. The intricacies of pet nutrition demand a comprehensive understanding of specific dietary requirements, potential nutrient interactions, and the diverse health considerations unique to individual animals.

“Does anyone have a recipe they can share”…

Unraveling the Risks in DIY Pet Diets Shared Online. Why Expert Guidance Matters.

While the internet may abound with seemingly helpful recipes, it is imperative to recognize the potential dangers inherent in relying on non-specialized sources for pet dietary guidance. Pet owners navigating the realm of homemade pet nutrition should be acutely aware that only a board-certified veterinary nutritionist possesses the requisite education, expertise, and credentials to formulate diets that align with the precise nutritional needs of animals.

A simple Google search results in numerous pet recipes, but caution is vital. Non-specialized sources may pose risks to your pet's health.
A simple Google search results in numerous pet recipes, but caution is vital. Non-specialized sources may pose risks to your pet's health.

Numerous studies have meticulously examined the nutritional adequacy and utilization of home-prepared diets, a notable portion of which were even formulated by veterinarians, catering to both the dietary needs of healthy pets and those coping with various diseases. The outcomes of these studies have consistently illuminated the inherent challenges associated with home-prepared pet diets. Findings reveal that a considerable majority of recipes, even when crafted by veterinary professionals, exhibit imbalances—either excesses or deficiencies—in essential nutrients crucial for sustaining optimal health in pets. Moreover, a significant factor contributing to this nutritional disarray is the observation that a substantial number of pet owners fail to adhere strictly to recipe instructions. Additionally, a common trend emerges where pet owners tend to deviate from the initial recipe over time, known as recipe drift, potentially compromising the nutritional integrity initially intended for their pets. These insights underscore the complex nature of pet nutrition and reinforce the indispensable role of board-certified veterinary nutritionists in safeguarding the well-being of our cherished animal companions.

Additionally, pet owners may wish to feed homemade diets because they believe it will save money; however, one study showed when homemade diets are done properly, they are usually more expensive than commercial dry food.

The potential hazards associated with pet owners attempting to create homemade pet diets cannot be overstated. While the impulse to seek recipes and share culinary experiences with fellow pet enthusiasts is understandable, the repercussions of such practices are inherently perilous.

A D-V skull radiograph of a dog with chronic kidney disease which was fed a nutrient-deficient homemade diet, resulting in nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and likely also renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. There is generalized osteopenia present, with thinning of some of the cortices.  Credit: Dr Pauline Jamieson, VetsNow Referrals
A D-V skull radiograph of a dog with chronic kidney disease which was fed a nutrient-deficient homemade diet, resulting in nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and likely also renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. There is generalized osteopenia present, with thinning of some of the cortices.  Credit: Dr Pauline Jamieson, VetsNow Referrals

The findings have been unequivocal: a substantial proportion of these recipes, whether designed for healthy pets or those grappling with specific diseases, exhibit significant imbalances in essential nutrient profiles.

The results of a computer analysis using Balanceit®.com software to assess an internet homemade diet recipe for an adult dog based on turkey, rice, and mixed vegetables. The figures in grey denote sufficient levels for a given nutrient, while the figures in red represent nutrients which are deficient.

The results of a computer analysis using Balanceit®.com software to assess an internet homemade diet recipe for an adult dog based on turkey, rice, and mixed vegetables. The figures in grey denote sufficient levels for a given nutrient, while the figures in red represent nutrients which are deficient.  Credit:
The results of a computer analysis using Balanceit®.com software to assess an internet homemade diet recipe for an adult dog based on turkey, rice, and mixed vegetables. The figures in grey denote sufficient levels for a given nutrient, while the figures in red represent nutrients which are deficient.  Credit:

Consulting Experts

Many pet owners may not fully grasp the complexities involved in nutrition and the intricacies of building a diet. What a complete and balanced formulation looks like and seeking guidance on navigating this terrain, raises the question of who should be consulted to ensure the best outcomes for your pet’s health. Acknowledging this knowledge gap is crucial, as it underscores the potential challenges and issues that can arise when well-intentioned individuals attempt to manage their pet’s nutrition without a comprehensive understanding. To address this concern, seeking the expertise of a qualified veterinarian or a board-certified veterinary nutritionist is highly recommended. These professionals can provide tailored guidance, considering your pet’s unique needs and health conditions, ensuring a balanced and nutritionally sound diet for optimal well-being and ongoing support.

Consulting Experts for Informed Dietary Choices

What is a Board Certified Veterinary Nutritionist®?

The distinction between a generic “nutritionist” and a “board-certified veterinary nutritionist” lies in the level of professional expertise and recognition within the field of veterinary nutrition. While the term “nutritionist” is not legally protected and can be used by anyone, a “board-certified veterinary nutritionist®” is a highly regulated and protected title.

This trademark underscores the critical importance of entrusting your pet’s nutritional well-being to professionals with the specialized knowledge necessary to safeguard their health.

A board certified veterinary nutritionist® is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Nutrition (ACVN®). They are veterinarians who are board-certified specialists in veterinary nutrition, and the ACVN® is the AVMA-recognized specialty organization for nutrition.

A board certified veterinary nutritionist® is a specialist that is uniquely trained in the nutritional management of both healthy animals and those with one or more diseases. Nutrition is critically important to maintain optimal health and ensure performance, as well as to manage the symptoms and progression of specific diseases. They are uniquely qualified to formulate commercial foods and supplements, formulate home-prepared diets, manage the complex medical and nutritional needs of individual animals, and understand the underlying causes and implications of specific nutritional strategies that are used to prevent and treat diseases. They work in a variety of different environments, including veterinary schools, pet food or drug companies, government agencies, or private veterinary hospitals. Some run their own businesses, and may be involved in a variety of different activities, including conducting research, taking care of patients, consulting with veterinarians, owners, or industry, and teaching.

Qualifications & Requirements for a board certified veterinary nutritionist®

The residency training program in veterinary nutrition is extensive:

  • One must achieve a degree in veterinary medicine

  • Complete at least 1 year of internship or clinical experience

  • Residency training includes at least 2 years of study, with a focus on both basic and clinical nutrition as well as research and teaching

  • Trainees study under the mentorship of at least one board certified veterinary nutritionist® and often with contact with many others over the course of the program

  • Some programs also require graduate-level coursework and rotation with other specialists (such as Internal Medicine, Critical Care, and Clinical Pathology)

  • Trainees must prepare and write up three case reports to qualify to take the board exam

    • The two day written examination is offered annually and covers a wide range of nutritional and medical knowledge

This training involves intensive clinical, teaching, and research activities spanning at least two years. Trainees also are required to pass a written examination in order to obtain board certification.

To become board certified peer-reviewed research must be published, highly precise case reports submitted and accepted, and an intense two day, three part written examination must be passed.

How do I contact and consult with a board certified veterinary nutritionist®?

The Nutrition Consultation

A nutrition consultation is performed to help pet owners determine the best feeding options for their pet. Your veterinarian can also contact a board certified veterinary nutritionist® on your behalf.

What is involved during the consultation

A nutrition consultation conducted by a board-certified veterinary nutritionist® typically involves a comprehensive and personalized assessment of an animal’s dietary needs and health status. They will review the client and patient’s records and the goals for the consultation. Some will perform consultations over the phone, via telemedicine.

Medical History Review: they will review the animal’s medical history, including any existing health conditions, previous illnesses, medications, and surgical interventions; a body condition score and muscle condition score is often determined. The pet’s medical conditions are discussed as well as the dietary goals for those conditions.

Dietary History Analysis: An in-depth analysis of the past and current diet, including the type and amount of food, treats, and supplements, is conducted.

Assessment of Nutritional Needs: Based on the animal’s species, breed, age, weight, activity level, and health status, the nutritionist determines the specific nutritional requirements. This may involve considerations for growth, maintenance, or therapeutic needs.

Specialized Diets for Health Conditions: If the animal has specific health conditions or dietary restrictions, the nutritionist will formulate a specialized diet to address these concerns. This may include managing chronic illnesses.

Customized Feeding Plan: A tailored feeding plan is developed, specifying the type and amount of food, feeding frequency, and any necessary supplements. This plan aims to meet the individual nutritional needs of the animal.

Education and Guidance: Pet owners are provided with education and detailed guidance on proper feeding practices, dietary preparation, storage, transitioning to a new diet, and monitoring the pet’s response to dietary changes. This plan is often provided in a written format.

Follow-Up and Monitoring: Regular follow-up appointments are essential to monitor the pet’s progress, adjust the feeding plan if necessary, and address any emerging concerns.

Overall, the goal of a nutrition consultation is to optimize and manage the pet’s health and well-being through a carefully tailored diet that meets their unique nutritional requirements and addresses any specific health considerations.

The Formulation:

The veterinary clinical nutrition specialty is dedicated to the exploration of how strategic nutritional interventions can not only support overall wellness but also effectively modify disease states in our pets across various life stages. They are uniquely positioned to draw from both their education and experience in clinical practice to assist with the development of pet food formulations. Within a clinical practice, these professionals exhibit a significant understanding of the client-patient dynamic, ensuring that personalized dietary recommendations align seamlessly with the health needs of each individual pet. When considering the formulation of a complete and balanced homemade diet, it is the expertise of these veterinary nutritionists that ensures a meticulous and tailored approach, prioritizing the well-being of our beloved companions. This extensive knowledge ensures that the delicate balance of nutrients is expertly tailored to support the health and vitality of your pet.

What does a Complete and Balanced Diet Mean?

A complete diet consists of essential nutrients at the adequate levels for the animal’s requirements.

A balanced diet has all the required nutrients in the appropriate proportions and ratios when compared to each other.

In order for a diet to be complete and balanced, all nutrient profiles must be met in the correct recommended level and ratio for the appropriate life-stage.

Feeding properly isn’t like building a house or putting together a puzzle. It’s more like baking a cake. If you leave the baking powder out of a cake recipe, the results are catastrophic, and you end up with a cracker instead of a cake. This is the equivalent of a full-blown nutritional deficiency. However, adding too much also has negative effects. To get the perfect cake, all ingredients need to be balanced.

Nutrient profiles, as acknowledged by both the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and the European Pet Food Industry Federation (FEDIAF), serve as foundational benchmarks for optimal pet nutrition. These standardized profiles, meticulously developed and adapted from the National Research Council (NRC), establish scientifically validated criteria for essential nutrients in pet diets. By aligning with these recognized profiles, pet food formulations can strive for completeness and balance, meeting the stringent nutritional requirements set forth by authoritative bodies in the field. This harmonious convergence of scientific rigor and industry standards underscores the commitment to ensuring the provision of well-balanced and nutritionally sound diets for our companion animals.

2006 NRC Nutrient Requirements for Adult Dogs (Maintenance)
2006 NRC Nutrient Requirements for Adult Dogs (Maintenance)
2006 NRC Nutrient Requirements for Adult Dogs (Maintenance)
AAFCO Nutrient Requirements for Dogs
AAFCO Nutrient Requirements for Dogs
AAFCO Nutrient Requirements for Dogs
AAFCO Nutrient Requirements for Dogs
AAFCO Nutrient Requirements for Dogs
AAFCO Nutrient Requirements for Dogs

Knowledge of Canine Nutrition

Basic knowledge of nutrition of dogs is required. The nutrient requirements of dogs by National Research Council (2006) are needed. Also, the requirements from the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) nutrient profiles for dogs are essential. Therefore, these requirements that are proven as necessity of canine nutrient formulation need to keep in mind during homemade dietary formulation.

These scientifically established benchmarks serve as cornerstones in the formulation of canine diets, ensuring a comprehensive and balanced nutritional approach. Regrettably, pet owners may not fully grasp the depth of this complexity. The interdependence of various nutrients, their optimal ratios, and the impact on canine health demand a level of understanding that extends beyond conventional awareness.

It is essential to acknowledge the intricate nature of understanding these nutrient profiles, a complexity often underestimated by pet owners. The subtle interplay of various nutrients and their synergistic effects on the body might not be readily apparent, making it challenging for pet owners to appreciate the depth of nutritional science involved. These vital components work synergistically within the body, each playing a distinct role impacting physiological functions at a cellular level, but their collective impact may not manifest visibly, at first, until the unbalanced diet has been fed on a longer duration. Recognizing this sophisticated interconnection emphasizes the critical role of a scientifically informed approach in crafting pet diets as it underscores the importance of relying on the expertise of veterinary professionals who possess the specialized knowledge to navigate this nutritional complexity.

Knowledge of Small Animal Clinical Nutrition

A profound comprehension of clinical nutrition becomes paramount. It is not merely sufficient to acknowledge the importance and function of each nutrient; rather, an intricate understanding of their interplay and individual contributions is essential. The complexity deepens when considering the meticulous calculation and conversion of formulations across diverse perspectives. This complexity is heightened by the imperative need to tailor dietary considerations to the specific energy and nutrient requirements demanded by dogs at various life stages or when confronted with different disease conditions. Therefore, navigating the multifaceted landscape of clinical nutrition demands a rigorous grasp of these sophisticated factors, ensuring the formulation of diets that align precisely with the intricate health needs of animal patients.

Knowledge of the effect that preparation and storage has on nutrient availability is also necessary.

*Baking potatoes instead of boiling results in ~20% higher potassium concentrations.

Knowledge of Database Management

Diets can be formulated by hand calculation, using computer-assisted calculations, or commercially developed computer software programs. These are specialized tools employed to meticulously adjust the ratios of selected ingredients.

But they do not automatically do the work for you…

Obtaining Nutrient Profile | Database for Dietary Compositions

The judicious selection of ingredients for formulating a homemade diet necessitates a comprehensive consideration of nutrient content, availability, and cost. Resources that facilitate the acquisition of detailed nutrient profiles for ingredients include reputable references like The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference 27 and Bowes and Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used. These authoritative sources serve as invaluable tools, offering a wealth of information on the nutritional composition of various ingredients. Leveraging such resources is essential in the meticulous formulation of homemade diets, ensuring that ingredient choices align precisely with the targeted nutrient requirements for optimal pet nutrition.

USDA Nutritive Value of Foods replaces USDA's Agriculture. Handbook 8
USDA Nutritive Value of Foods replaces USDA's Agriculture. Handbook 8

Formulating the Diet

Calculate the Energy Requirements

The initial phase in crafting a homemade diet involves the meticulous calculation of the animal’s energy requirements. Various equations have been advocated to estimate these essential needs accurately. This calculated approach ensures a foundational understanding of the energy demands, laying the groundwork for a comprehensive and tailored nutritional formulation that aligns precisely with the specific needs of the individual animal.

These equations utilize:

  • Resting energy requirements (RER)
    • This accounts for the energy required by the animal in a resting state, and includes physiologic influences and the assimilation of nutrients.
    • This can be calculated as 70 x BW (kg)0.75kcal/day.
  • Basal energy requirements (BER)
    • This describes the energy that is needed to meet the needs of cells and organs under a stress-free, thermoneutral environment, and in a post-absorptive state.
  • Maintenance energy requirements (MER)
    • This encompasses all the energy required for maintaining normal body condition in a normal pet.
    • The MER for dogs = 110 x BW(kg)0.75kcal/day and is adjusted according to the age and life-style of the animal and serves only as a starting point

*Caloric requirements can vary by as much as 25%, hence adjustments in daily caloric intake may need to be made to maintain the pet in an ideal body weight and body condition score.

Constructing the Diet

The protein intake of the pet is determined and the primary source of protein for the diet is selected.

Carbohydrates are then used to supply the balance of the energy requirements and to provide a source of fiber.

Once the protein, fat and carbohydrate ingredients have been selected, the vitamin and mineral content of the diet must be evaluated.

Example of ingredient prepping for Sheepdog Riggs’ homemade diet which was carefully formulated by the clinical nutrition team at the Ontario Veterinary College.

Nutrients are then bolstered using supplements.

The trial and error method is employed in a refined manner, involving continual adjustments to the quantity and composition of diets until the desired nutritional goals are attained.

Each homemade diet is arranged to read similar to a commercial pet food label, Below is a sample recipe provided by, established by Veterinary Nutritional Consultations (VNC), is the largest independent Veterinary Nutrition Service. With a team of five veterinarians, each with extensive clinical experience and unique specializations totaling over 100 years, offers teleconsulting services, providing customized nutrition consultations for pets with medical conditions. Their expertise extends to creating individualized dietary plans and assessing homemade recipes for healthy pets, all delivered directly to pet owners and veterinarians through their online platform, without the need for an office visit.

sample recipe provided by
sample recipe provided by
sample recipe provided by
sample recipe provided by
sample recipe provided by
sample recipe provided by

The intricate process of constructing a diet is undertaken to align the nutrient analysis profile with the precise requirements mandated for the optimal well-being of the pet. This task requires a well-informed understanding of nutritional science, as it involves not only selecting appropriate ingredients but also fine-tuning their proportions to achieve a delicate balance of essential nutrients. This precision in adjusting ratios goes beyond a basic understanding, requiring an advanced grasp of veterinary expertise to achieve a seamlessly balanced and tailored diet. The complexity of this endeavor underscores the need for a clinical approach, ensuring the precision and accuracy required to meet the dietary needs of our animal companions.

Education and Guidance

Once the recipe has been finalized, the owner must be provided with very specific instructions on the preparation, storage, and feeding of the diet.

Boiling instead of baking, using a crockpot to cook all ingredients together instead of cooking them separately as stated in a recipe – or swapping ingredients can have big effects on the nutrient profile of a diet.

The pet owner should purchase a kitchen scale to accurately weight out the ingredients.

Read more about Why do we use a gram scale?

Common errors attributable to pet owners often center around:

  • Ingredient substitution
  • Omission of essential vitamin and mineral supplements
  • Challenges in sourcing specific ingredients
  • Associated expense
  • A lack of comprehension regarding the critical importance of adhering strictly to the prescribed recipe
  • Non-compliance with recipe instructions
  • Deviation over time
  • Incomplete understanding of pet nutrition

These missteps, while understandable, underscore the significance of a disciplined and unwavering commitment to recipe adherence for the optimal nutrition and well-being of the pet.

Emphasizing the significance of precision in following dietary guidelines is paramount to mitigating potential health risks and ensuring the nutritional integrity of homemade diets for pets.


For pet owners venturing into the realm of homemade diets, collaboration with a qualified veterinary nutritionist is indispensable. Routine monitoring of pets on a homemade diet takes on heightened importance when overseen by these professionals. Meticulous attention to monitoring is paramount in ensuring the efficacy of a homemade diet for pets. Regular follow-up and client engagement are essential components in the ongoing success of a nutritionally optimized homemade diet. It is crucial to underscore that this level of monitoring and follow-up is most effectively conducted under the guidance of a veterinary professional. Veterinary nutritionists bring a wealth of specialized knowledge

Your commitment to providing a proper complete and balanced homemade diet formulated by a board certified veterinary nutritionist not only safeguards your pet’s health, but it reflects a profound dedication to the health and well-being of your beloved companion.

Relying on reputable sources in the veterinary industry provides a foundation of credibility and ensures accurate and trustworthy information for pet owners. For more information:


American College of Veterinary Nutrition (ACVN)

ACVN: “Are commercially available pet foods safe and healthful?”
ACVN: “How do I contact and consult with a board certified veterinary nutritionist?”
ACVN: “Is preparing my pets food at home better than buying commercial foods?”
AAHA: “Homemade pet food guidance: Teaching clients to avoid common pitfalls and maintain quality control”
Pet Food Institute: “Choosing a Pet Food”
Tufts University: “FAQ about home-cooked diets for pets”
Tufts University: “Cooking Up Trouble: Common Home Cooking Mistakes”
Tufts University: “Should you make your own pet food at home?”
Tufts University: “Think Twice: Reasons to Avoid a Home-cooked Diet”
Tufts University: “What Nutritionists Wish You Knew: 5 Homecooked Diet Mistakes & Misconceptions”
UC Davis: “Is Homemade Food Good or Bad for Your Dog?”
Vetfocus: “Homemade diets – good or bad?”


de Fornel-Thibaud P, Blanchard G, Escoffier-Chateau L, et al. Unusual case of osteopenia associated with nutritional calcium and vitamin D deficiency in an adult dog. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 2007;43(1):52-60.

Chastain CB, Panciera D, Waters C. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in six cats. Small Anim. Clin. Endocrinol. 2000;10(2):5.

Hall G, Breheny C, Khan Z, et al. Severe nutritional deficiencies and osteopenia in a dog fed a homemade raw diet. Vet. Rec. Case Rep. 2020;8(1):e001038.

Hutchinson D, Freeman LM, McCarthy R, et al. Seizures and severe nutrient deficiencies in a puppy fed a homemade diet. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2012;241:477-483.

Lenox C, Becvarova I, Archipow W. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet. JFMS Open Reports 2015;1(1):2055116915579682.

Niza MMRE, Vilela CL, Ferreira LMA. Feline pansteatitis revisited: hazards of unbalanced home-made diets. J. Feline Med. Surg. 2003;5:271-277.

Stockman J, Fascetti AJ, Kass PH, et al. Evaluation of recipes of home-prepared maintenance diets for dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2013;242:1500-1505.

Wilson SA, Villaverde C, Fascetti AJ, et al. Evaluation of the nutritional adequacy of recipes for home-prepared maintenance diets for cats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2019;15:254(10):1172-1179.

Larsen JA, Parks EM, Heinze CR, et al. Evaluation of recipes for home-prepared diets for dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2012;240(5):532-538.

Segev G, Fascetti AJ, Weeth LP, et al. Correction of hyperkalemia in dogs with chronic kidney disease consuming commercial renal therapeutic diets by a potassium-reduced home-prepared diet.J. Vet. Intern. Med. 2010;24(3):546-550.

Synergistically Yours

Danielle & Sheepdog Riggs

forever in our hearts

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